The main plastic material of the car (1)
Plastics, especially high-performance plastics, play an increasingly important role in the automotive industry. The lightweight nature of the plastic makes the vehicle more energy efficient during use. It is estimated that for every 10% reduction in vehicle weight, fuel usage will be reduced by 5%-7%. The advantages of high performance plastics for vehicles include:
Less corrosion, allowing longer vehicle life
Rich design that integrates advanced creativity and innovation with the vehicle
Integration component flexibility
Safe, comfortable and economical
There are many kinds of plastics, and automotive plastics are mainly used in interior parts, exterior parts and functional parts. According to the different use characteristics of famous plastics, they are usually divided into three types: general plastics, engineering plastics and special plastics.
First, general plastics
Generally refers to plastics with large production volume, good formability, low price and wide use. General purpose plastics consist of five major varieties, polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polystyrene (PS), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), all thermoplastic plastic.
Polypropylene, commonly known as 100% plastic, similar to white wax, transparent, light weight, good fluidity during injection molding, water absorption is less than 0.02%. The PP shrinkage is 1.0-3.5%, and the suitable thickness is 1.5-2.5 mm.
There are two main problems with the widespread use of PP in the automotive sector: flammability (which will drip from combustion) and brittleness in low temperature environments. In response to these two problems, suitable additives are added to the practical application of the industry for PP modification. It is easy to burn with flame retardant; it is brittle at low temperature, and it is mainly modified by other ductile materials, rigid particles or elastomers, such as rubber (EPDM), talcum powder (TD), glass fiber (GF). )Wait. There are many kinds of automobile products made of PP resin, and there are various kinds of instrument panels, door guards, pillar guards, bumpers, water tanks, decorative panels, and there are more and more trends in the application of PP in automobiles.
Polyethylene, the shrinkage rate is 1.5 to 4.0%, and the suitable thickness is 1.0 to 2.5 mm.
The biggest disadvantage of PE as an automotive material is that it is easy to burn. The simplest and most common method is to add a suitable flame retardant to improve the combustion performance of PE. Automobile products made of PE mainly include fuel tanks, air ducts, front seat trim covers, air duct assemblies (HDPE), left and right air duct assemblies, up and down wind vane connecting bars, left and right foot vent assemblies, and the like.
The most commonly used plastic raw materials in automotive plastic products are polyvinyl chloride. Automotive plastic products made of PVC plastic can be seen everywhere, PVC instrument panel skin, PVC plastic steering wheel, PVC plastic liner, PVC plastic car floor material. This is not only because PVC resin is economical, but also has good processing properties and comprehensive mechanical properties.
Due to PS brittleness, it is often graft copolymerized with other materials, such as graft copolymerization with butadiene to form HIPS. The impact strength and surface hardness of the rubber-containing rubber are greatly improved. The shrinkage rate is 0.4-0.7%, and the suitable thickness is 2-3 mm.
The main application of PS in automobiles is on the instrument casing, lampshade and lighting products. Polystyrene can also be used to prepare packaging materials and thermal insulation materials by foam molding, which is used for the production of ceilings, and is also graft copolymerized and modified with other materials to obtain many fixed and matched PS family alloy plastic varieties, such as SMA. In the manufacture of car dashboard skeletons.
The acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer, commonly known as super-breakable rubber, has a white body. The shrinkage is 0.4-0.7%, and the suitable wall thickness is 1.8-3 mm.
Due to the variety of ABS, the surface treatment effect is good, the price is low, and it is widely used in the automotive field. In view of the poor weather resistance of ABS, high-weather resistant AES, ASA and other materials have been widely used in commercial vehicles to supplement ABS. When the product needs to be surface treated (such as water transfer film, spray), ABS is used; when surface treatment is not required, ASA and AES are used. The most typical products in automobile products are decorative bright strips, shifting handle heads, inner opening handles, license plate trim panels, rear spoiler assemblies, rearview mirror bodies, radiator grille bodies, handrails, and the like. plastic